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内燃机汽车的历史

发布时间:2019-07-10 点击数:

  卡尔·本茨(1844—1929)于1844年出生在德国西部卡尔斯鲁厄的一个火车司机家庭。在中学时,本茨就对自然科学产生了浓厚的兴趣。由于家境清寒,他还要靠修理手表来挣零用钱。1860年,根据母亲的意愿,本茨进入了卡尔斯鲁厄综合科技学校,在这个学校里他学到了重要的机械构造、机械原理、发动机制造、机械制造经济核算等课程,为以后的事业打下了基础。在经历过学徒工、服兵役、娶妻生子等人生经历后,本茨于1872年组建了“本茨铁器铸造公司和机械工场”,专门生产建筑材料。1885年,他把一台自制的两冲程单缸0.9马力汽油机,安置在一辆三轮马车前后轮之间的底盘上。此车具备了现代汽车的主要特点,如火花点火、水冷循环、钢管车架、铜丝辐条车轮、钢板弹簧悬架100全年历史图库后轮驱动、前轮转向和制动把手,并且首次采用了伞形差速齿轮,该车每小时可行驶15km。1886年1月29日,德国曼海姆专利局批准了卡尔·本茨申请的专利,这一日期被国际汽车界定为汽车的诞生日。其实,在本茨之前已经有不少人在研制车用内燃机和汽车,如法国报刊早在1863年就报道过雷诺发明的汽车,以及戴波梯维尔在1884年运用内燃机作为动力源,制成一辆装有单缸内燃机的三轮汽车和一辆装有两缸内燃机的四轮汽车。但世界上公认的还是卡尔·本茨在曼海姆制成的第一辆本茨专利内燃机汽车(被人们称为“奔驰一号”,以本茨的名字命名,我国译为“奔驰”)。“奔驰一号”获得专利后,由于汽车在路上经常抛锚,受到不少冷嘲热讽,因此卡尔·本茨不愿在公开场合驾驶它上街。看着自己辛辛苦苦造起来的车在车库里睡大觉,他寝食难安。就在本茨的事业遭受挫折与困境时,他的妻子贝尔塔·林格尔决定用行动给丈夫信心。1888年8月的一个清晨,这位勇敢的女性,带着两个孩子驾车从曼海姆出发,行驶了144km到达普福尔茨海姆,成为世界上第一个试车者和女驾驶员。当行驶至维斯洛赫时,他们向一家药店要过一些汽油和水,因而有人把这家药店称作世界上第一个汽车加油站。在妻子行动的鼓励下,卡尔·本茨不断努力,改进汽车的结构,终于使制造的车辆获得了成功。1888年,卡尔·本茨雇用了50名工人,组织批量生产三轮汽车。1926年6月29日,本茨与戈特利布·戴姆勒的继承人鲍尔,把两个人的公司合并成为“戴姆勒-奔驰汽车公司”,以形似汽车转向盘的“三叉星”作为车标,陆续生产出梅赛德斯-奔驰系列乘用车、赛车和商用车。1895年,法国科学院正式把这种乘人的车辆定名为“汽车”

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